WizLaw Ways to Reduce Court Delays: Improving Justice Delivery in Ghana


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Justice delayed is justice denied. This age-old adage holds true in the context of the Ghanaian judicial system, where cases often take years to reach a resolution. The recent closure of the prosecution's case against the 14 accused persons in the Major Mahama murder trial, five years after the incident, has once again brought the issue of court delays to the forefront.

In this article, we will explore the various factors that contribute to these delays and propose practical solutions to reduce them. As a legal practitioner, I believe it is crucial for all stakeholders to understand the underlying causes of delay and work towards improving the efficiency of our judicial system.

1. Insufficient Number of Courts

One of the primary reasons for the slow delivery of justice in Ghana is the inadequate number of courts. In a country with a population of over 30 million people, we have less than 400 courts to handle the increasing caseload. This scarcity of courts leads to a backlog of cases and prolonged delays in trial proceedings. It is essential to ensure that every electoral area has at least a district court to expedite the resolution of petty conflicts and crimes.

The responsibility to establish new courts lies not only with the Judicial Service but also with the Executive and Parliament. Financial commitments are required to acquire land, construct court buildings, recruit magistrates and judges, and provide them with adequate resources. As citizens, we must demand that our leaders prioritize the expansion of the court system to enhance justice delivery.

2. Low Technology and Recording Methods

The archaic recording methods used in Ghanaian courts contribute significantly to case delays. Most courts still rely on handwritten notes, which slow down the pace of trials. While some higher courts have introduced computers for recording, the process still involves manual typing. This limitation forces lawyers and court users to speak slowly to ensure accurate transcription, prolonging the duration of proceedings.

The limited number of courts exacerbates the issue further. With a high caseload, judges must allocate limited time to each case, often devoting only an hour for cross-examination. This time constraint, coupled with the need for manual transcription, severely hampers the progress of trials. For example, in the Major Mahama murder trial, the prosecution had to present its case against 14 accused persons, each entitled to a fair defense and the opportunity to cross-examine witnesses. This complex process consumes a significant amount of time and contributes to the overall delay.

To address this issue, it is crucial to invest in technology and modernize our court recording systems. While progress has been made in this regard, particularly in higher courts, more comprehensive implementation is necessary. Shifting from physical serving of documents to electronic processes and digitizing court archives would streamline procedures and facilitate efficient retrieval of case files. Additionally, developing voice recognition software that can accurately transcribe legal arguments would significantly reduce the time spent on manual typing.

3. Ineffective Rules Against Delays

Although rules exist to prevent unnecessary delays in court proceedings, they are often ineffective in practice. Parties involved in a case, including lawyers and clients, contribute to the delays despite the rules in place. For instance, judges may order parties to file witness statements within a specific timeframe, but non-compliance is common. While fines or costs can be imposed for non-compliance, they fail to deter delays effectively.

Striking out a case for non-compliance can lead to potential injustice, as restarting the case may disadvantage one party. Therefore, alternative methods should be explored to address non-compliance without compromising fairness. Perhaps the introduction of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms or stricter enforcement of deadlines through judicial discretion can help reduce delays caused by parties.

4. Building More Courts

To alleviate the burden on existing courts and expedite justice delivery, the creation of more courts is imperative. A more even distribution of cases can be achieved by building additional courts across the country. President Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo's commitment to establishing High Courts in the newly created regions is a positive step forward. Extending this initiative to all new districts would further enhance access to justice. At a minimum, each district should have a circuit court to handle local disputes promptly.

Building more courts necessitates the appointment of additional judges and the recruitment of more lawyers. The current ratio of lawyers to the population is inadequate, with only around 4,000 lawyers registered with the Ghana Bar Association. Expanding legal education and producing more qualified lawyers will ensure sufficient human resources to support the increased number of courts.

The table below illustrates the distribution of lawyers across different regions in Ghana:

RegionNumber of Lawyers
Greater Accra3490
Ashanti Region406
Western and Western North98
Bono, Bono East, Ahafo82
Central Region76
Volta & Oti31
North, Savannah and North East29
Upper West19
Upper East17
The workload on our courts is undeniably a significant factor contributing to delays in justice delivery. Expanding the number of courts and training more lawyers is essential to alleviate this burden and ensure timely resolution of cases.

5. Investing in Technology

While progress has been made in adopting technology in Ghanaian courts, there is still room for improvement. Investing in advanced technology solutions can significantly enhance the efficiency of court proceedings and reduce delays.

One area that requires attention is the digitization of court processes. Shifting from physical document serving to electronic processes can expedite the exchange of legal documents among parties and the court. This eliminates the need for extensive manual efforts to locate and serve physical copies, which often result in unnecessary delays.

Additionally, the development of voice recognition software tailored to the Ghanaian accent and pronunciation can revolutionize court proceedings. Lawyers and judges will be able to present their arguments verbally, reducing the reliance on manual typing and expediting the transcription process.

Furthermore, the digitization of court archives is crucial to facilitate easy retrieval of case files. Scanning and storing files in the cloud would eliminate the time-consuming process of searching through physical dockets. Implementing these technological advancements would streamline court procedures and significantly reduce delays.

6. Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms

Incorporating alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms can help alleviate the burden on the court system and expedite the resolution of certain cases. ADR methods, such as mediation and arbitration, offer parties a faster and more cost-effective means of resolving disputes. By encouraging the use of ADR, the court system can focus its resources on more complex cases that require adjudication.

7. Strengthening Case Management

Efficient case management is crucial to reducing delays in court proceedings. Judges should have the authority to manage their dockets effectively and prioritize cases based on their urgency and complexity. Implementing case management systems and providing judges with adequate administrative support can streamline the scheduling and allocation of court time, ensuring that each case receives the attention it deserves.

Additionally, setting realistic timelines for the completion of different stages of a trial and strictly enforcing these deadlines can help prevent unnecessary delays. Judicial officers should have the authority to impose consequences for non-compliance, such as fines or costs, to deter parties from causing delays.

8. Continuous Professional Development for Judicial Officers

Ongoing training and professional development programs for judicial officers are essential to enhance their skills and knowledge. Keeping judges abreast of the latest legal developments and best practices in case management will enable them to handle cases more efficiently. Additionally, training programs can focus on improving the use of technology in court proceedings, ensuring that judges are well-equipped to leverage modern tools and techniques to reduce delays.

9. Public Education and Awareness

Public education plays a vital role in fostering confidence in the judicial system and promoting a better understanding of the factors contributing to court delays. Creating awareness about the challenges faced by the judiciary and the efforts being made to address them can help manage public expectations and encourage support for reforms. Transparency and accountability in the judicial process are crucial to building trust among citizens.

10. Political Will and Stakeholder Collaboration

Addressing the issue of court delays requires a collective effort from all stakeholders, including the Judiciary, Executive, Parliament, legal practitioners, and the public. Political will and commitment to judicial reforms are essential to secure the necessary resources and implement the proposed solutions effectively. Collaboration and consultation among stakeholders can ensure that the reforms undertaken are comprehensive and address the root causes of delay.

In conclusion, reducing court delays in Ghana requires a multi-faceted approach that encompasses the establishment of more courts, investment in technology, effective case management, and stakeholder collaboration. By addressing these factors and implementing the proposed solutions, we can improve the efficiency of our judicial system and ensure timely justice delivery. Let us work together to create a justice system that upholds the principles of fairness, transparency, and expediency.